Notes for Academic Sources

When writing an academic piece, it is important to consider where you look for research on a subject matter. Sources need to be accurate and have some authority to the topic. Best sources are academics as they are checked by an expert for accuracy and quality before the content is published.

Different research types consist of Primary, Secondary – quantitative and qualitative, Market and Target.

Different types of academic sources are experts, academics and practitioners.

When writing an academic piece it is key to find as many sources as possible as this will help to make the piece balanced and will help to identify key conflicts and similarities.

Second ‘Industry Reflection’ (Threat of Fake News

Fake news poses threats for Journalists around the world –

Fake news is, deliberately publish hoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation purporting to be real news — often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their effect. (1) In today’s society, fake news is becoming much more prominent, it is circulation the internet. The content poses a huge threat to journalists and companies everywhere as audiences are misled into believing the information they read. Fake news can lead to people formulating ideologies which in turn could be defamatory and incorrect.

Audiences are becoming less inclined to believe in journalists as they question if they are trustworthy and reliable sources. Journalists are not the only people who spread fake news, the internet is open to everyone and it is easier to get your content out in the open. It does not matter if it is false information. “It is easy to get sucked into a bubble that is actually completely different to the real world – and a long way from the truth.”(2)

‘Fake news is not a new phenomenon it has always been circulating’ (3), as a result of there being a huge rise in fake news, it has left people wondering whether what they believe about a topic to be true.

Fake news can lead to propaganda, a great example of this is WW2, and they spread propaganda through the uses of posters and radio broadcasts. They mislead young men/boys into believing that there was a great opportunity for them by signing up to join. They made it sound good, however, in reality, war is brutal and not the opportunity many was believed to have. Posters were also used to upkeep morale or wartime spirit. They made it clear that everybody was in this war together and everybody had an important part to play. This also helped the public to feel involved. (4)

Corporations are trying to cut down and help to stop the circulation of false news. They have other agencies looking through content, they can help identify false news and can block or ban information they deem to be inaccurate. For instance, Safari and Google are just two for these corporations. (5)

In conclusion, I do not believe that fake news will ever be a thing of the past, but if people have more understanding of where the more reliable sources are then it will help to reduce the negative responses journalists get.

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First ‘Industry Reflection’ (Vogue vs Bloggers)

Senior Editors at Vogue magazine have been criticising Fashion bloggers for their conduct at Milan Fashion Week.

Bloggers have hit back at ‘outdated’ mainstream journalists. Who’s right?

Vogue is the world’s number one fashion magazine. With a female dominant target audience. According to media kit, the target audience is “81% women and aged 16-40” It does break down further based on demographics and social status as well (1).

In modern day society, the world is becoming much more digital and it is so much easier to get content out to an audience. This could be through social media apps, blogs and even other platforms. It could be argued that journalists feel threatened because of it been so open to really anyone, who wants their say.

Sally Singer, the magazine’s creative digital director wrote, “Note to bloggers who change head-to-toe paid-to-wear outfits every hour: please stop. Find another business. You are heralding the death of style” (2). This got the backs up of many bloggers. Many other comments were made which got a hostile response from both fans and bloggers. As a journalist, it can be seen that Vogue editors have a point if anyone writes or posts about a topic who knows if it is factually accurate. Journalists have a job and if others can do the same thing at their own pleasure, then we have to ask ourselves is there a future for the media?

Sarah Jones, writer at Luxury Daily explains that fashion bloggers have larger followings. Creating an identity or brand for themselves. She says, “While it may seem that fashion bloggers are losing their luster, they still have large followings that can rival magazines, creating an opportunity for luxury brands to reach a large, fashion-focused audience” (3).

This is significant as if this is the case it must make magazines feel threatened and probably why they declared a war against the fashion bloggers. Bloggers are looked upon by a young generation to gain styling tips and advice.

In conclusion, it may be seen that Vogue is out of touch with the society of today and need to either reconsider their strategies on pulling in an audience or as the times reported, they should “get back to their Werther’s Originals” (2)


  1. CondeNast (2016) Media information 2016. Available at: (Accessed: 26 December 2016).
  2. (No Date) Available at: http://CondeNast(2016) Media information 2016. Available at: (Accessed: 26 December 2016) (Accessed: 26 December 2016).
  3. Topping, A. (2016) Vogue editors accused of hypocrisy after declaring war on fashion bloggers. Available at: (Accessed: 26 December 2016).
  4. Jones, S. (2017) Luxury daily. Available at: (Accessed: 2 January 2017).

Third ‘Industry Reflection’ (Survival of print)

How can journalism survive the decline of print and what are the dangers of a growing democratic deficit in local reporting?

It can be argued that journalism can survive the decline of print, however, there is more evidence to back up that there isn’t a future for print. I agree with this as  There are many reasons that print is in decline. Some of the reasons are Aging Audience, Impractical, Cost, Literacy, Wasteful and The Internet. Print hasn’t adapted enough to today’s society needs, people don’t seem to want to pay for newspapers as there are other ways around getting the same information and quicker than the papers can get the news out to the audiences. Social media has impacted the print news industry as it provides news at the reader’s fingers and free of charge. “people don’t like to read, recreationally or otherwise. Newspapers endorse literacy implicitly on a daily basis. Granted, the industry is aimed at the least educated-types for a reason, as people don’t often have the attention span to sit down and absorb a single thing.”

Radio workshop with Richard Horsman

Richard Horsman runs MA at Leeds Trinity.

He came in to do a workshop with us journalism students, to explain the effectiveness of the sound medium in society. Especially in media and journalism. He introduced us to key facts about radio and audio.

Key facts about radio and audio

  • Effective audio will move from the background into the foreground
  • 89% of people in the UK listen to the radio during the week. (93% in America)
  • In developing countries, people will gather to listen to the radio to receive important information. For instance, crop sales, weather etc.
  • 20% of Americans have heard a podcast this week (1 in 5). 1 in 11 people in the UK had heard a podcast this week.
  • Radio is a simple medium that is cheap and easy to produce.
  • There are more radio stations now than there had ever been
  • Biggest mass medium there is

Interviewing Techniques 

  • Putting an audio file into a story gives added interest to the reader – brings quotes to life
  • Go out and get a face to face interview. A telephone interview puts an additional barrier in the way. People are more likely to open up to you in a face to face situation.
  • Most important pers

Importance of Sound (workshop)

Today, Richard Horsman  gave a workshop on the importance of using sound as another medium to enhance and develop a more of an intimate way of getting content to the audience. This workshop was really helpful and recapped on the basic skills required to capture a good quality of audio.

Key Facts 

  • Hold the microphone close to the interviewee, (7cm approx.)
  • Make sure that the sound levels are not peaking to high that the equipment can’t cope. If this happens it can change the outcome of the sound quality. If using a dictaphone just turn the sound down a bit.
  • Ask a variety of questions from open to closed. massage the interviewee at the start and work towards the main questions.
  • Remember to get the Full Name at the start. If unusual name ask them to spell it out.
  • Ask them if they want to add anything at the end.

I found it really useful and will remember when using sound in my own journalism and other practices.

Two of Ofcom’s Important Codes of Conduct to me as a Journalist

OFCOM are the broadcast regulators for TV and Radio. However, parts of their code of conduct are crucial in other fields of journalism. For instance, the written forum.  The two most important sections of the code for journalists are Section 5 (Due impartiality and due  accuracy) and Section 7 (fairness).

All of section five is important for a journalist as each part of the section focuses on making news that is correct and that isn’t biased. This section also is extremely important as it reinforces the ethical and moral guidelines of a credible and truthful journalist. The points below highlight key rules.

Some important parts identified in this section of the code

  • This helps to ensure that news, in whatever platform, is reported with due accuracy and presented with due impartiality. (due – not favouring one side over another)
  • If significant mistakes are made in news it should normally be acknowledged and corrected on air or through the right means.
  • Any personal interest of a reporter or presenter, which call into question the due impartiality of the news/information, must be made clear to the audience.

The other import section is 7 which focuses on fairness. It talks about fairness to all people within organisations and those who are participating in a program. To sum up the section it helps the journalist to sustain a high credible, trustworthy and reliable profile. This helps the public to trust what your saying and helps to uphold your professionalism. The points below highlight key rules.

Some important parts identified in this section of the code

  • This ensures that broadcasters avoid unjust or unfair treatments of an individual or organisation in a program.
  • it may be fair to withhold all or some of the information where it is justified in the public’s interest or under other sections.