Copyright Infringement (Issues within the media)

At the the International Journalism Festival in Perugia on Saturday 9 April, experts spoke about the copyright aspects news outlets should be concerned with when using user-generated content.

Copyright plays a key role into how people should approach using someone else’s work. This could be from pictures, videos or anything else that is produced by an individual. It is important that people take ownership of their work and it is morally wrong from people to take it and use it for there own personal gain.

Trust is vital between a journalist and their sources as it puts the source at ease and makes them more willing to grant permissions to use their works.

“If you’re trying to create trust and build a relationship with your sources or the community, treating creators of material fairly is important.” stated Mr Adam Rendle, senior associate at international law firm, Taylor Wessing.

Rendle also pointed out the four C’s of using eyewitness media from social networks: control, credit, cash and conversations. This is what people want for their works.

There is many examples of where copyright has been breached;

There was a copyright infringement that was upheld by Pharrell Williams and Robin Thicke by their 2013 hit ‘blurred line’. In a court of law they ruled that, they breached copyright. As there track was too similar to Marvin Gaye’s 1977 hit.The Gaye’s family spoke publicly to the press stating ‘they want all sales to be put on hold till the issue has been resolved.’ The outcome of this was that they had to pay a large fee of 7.3 million to Mavin Gaye’s family members.

Sirius XM record label was also in breach of the copyright infringements as they used music from ‘The Band Turtles.’ A lawsuit was filed by the band members Flow and Eddy. The suit asks for more than $100 million in damages.


Associated Press in Los Angeles (2015) Pharrell Williams and Robin Thicke to pay $7.4m to Marvin Gaye’s family over blurred lines. Available at: (Accessed: 21 April 2016).
BBC (2015) Pharrell Williams denies blurred lines plagiarism claim. Available at: (Accessed: 21 April 2016).
Ciobanu, M. (2016) ‘Can I use your picture?’: Copyright advice for working with eyewitness media fairly from #IJF16. Available at:–copyright-advice-for-working-with-eyewitness-media-fairly-from-ijf16/s2/a628045/ (Accessed: 21 April 2016).
Flo and Eddie v. Sirius XM radio: Have Two Hippies from the 60’s just changed the course of broadcast music? – office of copyright(2014) Available at: (Accessed: 21 April 2016).
Sisario, B. (2014) Suit follows a win in court over Sirius XM. Available at: (Accessed: 21 April 2016).

Citations, Quotes & Annotations

Associated Press in Los Angeles (2015) Pharrell Williams and Robin Thicke to pay $7.4m to Marvin Gaye’s family over blurred lines. Available at: (Accessed: 21 April 2016).
(Associated Press in Los Angeles, 2015)
BBC (2015) Pharrell Williams denies blurred lines plagiarism claim. Available at: (Accessed: 21 April 2016).
(BBC, 2015)
Ciobanu, M. (2016) ‘Can I use your picture?’: Copyright advice for working with eyewitness media fairly from #IJF16. Available at:–copyright-advice-for-working-with-eyewitness-media-fairly-from-ijf16/s2/a628045/ (Accessed: 21 April 2016).
(Ciobanu, 2016)
Flo and Eddie v. Sirius XM radio: Have Two Hippies from the 60’s just changed the course of broadcast music? – office of copyright(2014) Available at: (Accessed: 21 April 2016).
(Flo and Eddie v. Sirius XM radio: Have Two Hippies from the 60’s just changed the course of broadcast music? – office of copyright, 2014)
Sisario, B. (2014) Suit follows a win in court over Sirius XM. Available at: (Accessed: 21 April 2016).
(Sisario, 2014)

Reflection on Woodward and Bernstein

Woodward and Bernstein were both responsible for reporting on the Watergate scandal in 1970’s.

The Watergate scandal was political sabotage, of the Democratic National Committee. Wire –tapping and breakings were reported by the Journalists. This was interesting when reported as it became public knowledge of the scandals and the secrets of the political powers.Woodward and Carl Bernstein are two of the more influential and important journalists in the 20

Woodward and Carl Bernstein are two of the more influential and important journalists in the 20th Century. The outcome of both Journalists helped to bring down the US president at the time Richard Nixon and led him to resign in 1974.

Both journalists would not have been able to achieve bringing down the scandal and revealing key information if it wasn’t from an anonymous source. The anonymous source went by the name of Deep Throat. If the real identity was known at the time the source could have faced prosecution and would have been in incredible trouble. He had anonymity for over 30 years, but into 2005 Mark Felt, who was former deputy director of the CIA, admitted he was the Deep throat.

For me as a journalist, I find the past events that have helped to shape journalism and bring down those in power incredibly interesting. If these events happened in today’s society I doubt it would have the same impact as it did in the 19th century. In the session, this was a focus of conversation, what our thoughts were.  The media today has different styles of writing. For instants, truth, misinformation, and pure nonsense. We shouldn’t believe everything we read.

Evaluation on Semester 2 of CATS

Over the last semester we have been introduced to some of the most interesting, important and influential journalists, photographers and photojournalists.

Some of the people we looked at in sessions were:

  • Joseph Pulitzer
  • John Pilger
  • Martin Bell
  • Emily Bell
  • Don McCullin

and Woodward and Bernstein

I also conducted independent research on

  • Mike Brodie
  • Lynsey Addario
  • Ade Adepitan
  • Ernie Plye

and Rageh Ommar

I thought this semester was really insightful and interesting learning about all the different backgrounds and works of these professionals. This is the line of work I want to go into so it gave me some insight to who the pioneers are in the field.

Many of the topics we covered in the sessions and through the independent research, wasn’t what I expected to have learned about. For instance, how the media manipulates its audiences to thinking a certain way. This is because they can show one side to a story. This made me realise that a story never ends at what the media tell us. We can dig deeper to find out more information.

I really enjoyed learning about the lengths each of the professionals went to in order to fulfil their job roles and what impacts they each had on journalism as a whole.

Reflection on Emily Bell

Emily Bell is a significant influence in the journalism industry, she currently works at the Columbia Journalism School in New York City as the Director of the Tow Centre. She has had a very interesting and successful career over the years. Working for some of the most recognised media organisations around the world. From the Observer to the Guardian. Her career at the Guardian extremely successful and she spent two decades, writing and coming up with new platforms to what news could be used on. In 2000, she pioneered the and became editor-in-chief of Guardian Unlimited a year later. She developed multiple of different ways to reach audiences on a digital platform.

Open Journalism has evolved over the years and is becoming incredibly important. Emily Bell has done so much towards the developments, for instance:

  • Creation of a two-way relationship between readers and the media – This allows audiences to leave comments, get involved and be a part of the news (building rapport). This is as important in today’s society as the world is online driven. People spend so much time on their phones, laptops and many other pieces of technology. By having a two-way relationship help to give the audience a voice and give them an immersive experience.
  • Online storytelling techniques – websites, social media, blogs etc. navigation, colours, content all play an important part in the success of a storytelling website.

Reflection on Joeseph Pulitzer

In a recent session we looked at Joseph Pulitzer. He played an enormous role in shaping journalism. Many things we still see today. In modern day society we still see many things that was pioneered and championed by Pulitzer. For instance, the sports section etc. Pulitzer is one of the most recognised and most influential journalists of all time.

Some people have different thoughts on Joseph Pulitzer. Some believe he was a legend for pioneering lots of things and shaping journalism. Some are not in favour with what he accomplished.

The reasons some people are not a massive fan of Pulitzer is the fact he

  • Covered stories which wasn’t factual (true). Yellow journalism is what you call it. As a journalist it is the duty to provide the audience with factual and accurate content.
  • He shaped journalism into a darker era. Having negative and dark stories. I feel that had news stories are so prominent now a days and it is causing the world to get desensitised by what we see and read. This is not good as it stops people getting emotionally connected to the content.

The reasons why others believe he is one of the greatest journalist ever

  • He at the age of just 25 he owned and as editor of a newspaper called the St Louis Post Dispatch.
  • He championed the poor. He tackled assailing governments, corruption, wealth, tax dodgers and gamblers.
  • He took over The New York world newspaper
  • He founded the Columbia Journalism School – this is where a lot of the most influential and most recognised journalists go.
  • he introduced new things into papers that hadn’t been seen before
  • first newspaper to have a sports section
  • use of large pictures
  • selling advertising in his newspaper
  • covered crimes
  • he started to put games (crosswords) and contests

There are pros and cons to Joseph Pulitzer’s achievements. But people can deny him of his achievements over his life time. He did things maybe which others wouldn’t that’s why his name is well known.

Since, he died there have been many accolades for him. Like The Pulitzer prise it is what every journalist aspires to get as it is a sign of great achievements within the journalism field.

From this session I will take away valuable knowledge that with whatever I do as a journalist, I won’t be able to please all. All I can do is follow my moral ways of been a truthful and factual journalist. This will make people respect, trust and will help me to uphold a credible reputation in the industry. I really like the ideas of the NUJ code of conduct as they are what all journalists so strive to follow.

Statement of Intent for CATS Comparison Essay

For my comparison essay, I have chosen to look more in-depth at Rageh Ommar and Ernie Pyle. Both of these journalists/correspondents reported on war. some of the key things I will be comparing and contrasting are:

  • Their work
  • Political Views
  • Influences
  • Reputations
  • House styles and Technology’s

I believe that both Plye and Ommar will be really interesting to analyse as they both have served a long and successful career. Working in a different era will help to showcase comparisons in how they did their reporting and job. Even though they have a lot of difference they also shared similar traits as well. These two war correspondents worked years apart, but the way in which news is reported has changed.

I will use key quotes to back up what I am saying. There are many things I can do in order to gain knowledge on the reporters. For instance using the library facilities, use books, the internet and any other sources if needed.

The essay will be 2000 words in total and will contribute 30% towards my overall marks for CATS. 10 %, either way, will still be appropriate for the work count.

A Journalist/Media Personnel that Inspires Me

When thinking about my Journalist hero, I felt awkward as there are many influences but not sure if there is one person specifically. Some of my influences that made me choose journalism are; Michael Moore, Louis Theroux and many sports media broadcasters.

The one person that really influenced me more than others is Ade Adepitan. This is because he pushed the boundaries of what people with disabilities where stereotyped. People believe that people with disabilities couldn’t do much, couldn’t live a normal life and achieve great things. Well Ade is an extremely hardworking individual. He represented Great Britain in the Paralympics in Sidney 2000 after been selected at the tender age of 15, he carried on representing Team GB and won a number of medals. He then went on to starring in a documentary called “hoop dreams”, presenting a weekly wildlife programme and doing a series of idents and adverts.

Once his sports career had its day he made its life ambition to inspire others by doing talks. I was lucky enough to have had the chance to be at a talk he did. It really gave me an insight, passion and understanding of what it takes to make yourself stand out and get noticed.

He now is a British television presenter and has reported and presented for the Paralympic games in 2012, worked for the BBC and Channel 4.

His career is very inspiring as it shows that you can achieve, even when faced with challenges. His career is similar to what I would like to achieve within my life time. I want to inspire others.

Reflection – Martin Bell

Martin bell OBE was well known for been an independent MP in 1997. He also was a former war reporter and broadcaster. In his career he travelled to over 102 countries and reported in over 80 of them. He is also a British ambassador for UNICEF.

Bells most famous war reporting was in Vietnam, Bosnia and many others. When broadcasting/ reporting he is well known for wearing a white shirt. The white top made him stand out from the soldiers. Bells journalist career became prominent in 1962 when he joined the BBC as a reporter. This was local news. After a few years Bell moved to London.

He challenged the style of embedded journalism. Embedded journalists would have worn the same of the soldiers to blend themselves in. This is dangerous in itself, I believe that Bells technique was really brave as it made him stand out more. This could have made him an easier target. Embedding reporters is really common in conflicts and to break that style can be incredibly powerful and make a name for the reporter. Bell is a great example of that. In order for him to adopt this style of broadcasting he had to have a translator and a camera man. This meant that there were few people involved and so that he could understand the different language barriers.

Martin Bell often revert his reports back to people giving the situation a human outlook on what was happening. This was often what we don’t see back home. For instance, whilst reporting in Bosnia at the village of Ahmici, He shows viewers families, children and friends. This made the reporting much more personal and gave the report a humanised element. This for me provokes emotions in others as that could have been there children or families. It really makes you think about those close to you. As well I think bell touches upon those ideologies of moral panic. This is seen within the reporting as it also showed how many people were affected by conflict, soldiers on battlefields and military forces, people firing weapons and destroyed buildings.

In the session we watched a YouTube video. It was an Interview on Martin Bells career at The Frontline Club, 2011. There where interesting facts and really told the hardworking man’s long career.

Martin Bell revealed that the first story he did wasn’t the best as he didn’t take it serious. He mentioned how he would spend all day writing and working on a 60 second script so he could report back to viewers what was happening. When he was given his first assignment in Vietnam, he stated he didn’t show any Vietnamese civilians and only showed one side to the action. Only the American military were showcased.

Later on in the video he talks about his guilt as he blames himself for one of his translators been killed. He feels the guilt as he got the young man involved in his work. Personally, I wouldn’t blame bell at all the young man knew the harsh and dangerous world he was involved in. it was just a horrific tragedy.

As a practitioner of becoming a journalist, I feel Martin Bell is a good inspiration as he showcases that you can stand out from the crowd and achieve if not more than others. His style is admirable as he pushes the boundaries and takes risks. Bell really gets close to the action on what he is reporting this meant that he could give the latest of what’s happening. He also showcase that you can have a long and successful career if you work hard.


Reflection on Don McCullin

As I was unable to attend the session as I had a hospital appointment, I was sent the PowerPoint presentation that was used in the session. In this PowerPoint it had links to YouTube videos. We all were expected to watch the links.

The documentary was really insightful as Don McCullin openly talks about the effects of his job role and from a personal level. He also explained the emotional challenges when having to photograph hard news. Some of the things he referred to was how it affected him emotionally and mentally. He knew full well that he would have to see some of the most tragic and upsetting scene in his line of work.

McCullin said  “photography for me is not looking, its feeling. If you can’t feel what you’re looking at, then you’re never going to get others to feel anything when they look at your pictures.”

I did further research into Don McCullin’s and came across one of his books: Don McCullin (2003). When reading the book it set the scene about don McCullin and his home life then moved onto the different conflicts and wars. There were passages from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Beirut. I believe that McCullin when writing this book focused on the humanity aspect and throughout the majority of his work. In the book it showcased a large amounts of his photography work. The images I thought were quite disturbing and showcased the harsh reality of war. McCullin’s work is extraordinary as he was one of the first photojournalists to capture photographs the ways he did. His work draws viewers in and makes them connect with what’s going on in the image.

One of the images that caught my eye was;

don mcc


This image is so powerful, it really shows suffering and the mind-sets of the solider. This image to me shows the solider is dead behind the eyes. The emotions are very reserved, but at the same time showcase fear, sadness and so much more. I really like the negative space over the soldier’s right shoulder, it has a very faint outline of what looks to be a tank. It makes the danger seem incredibly close.


McCullin’s career began in 1959, he specialized in examining the dark side of society, from conflicts, poverty/ the third world countries and death. One of the most interesting facts I learned about him was that in 1968 when he was out doing his work, a gunman shot a bullet aiming for McCullin however, his Nikon camera stopped a bullet intended for him. He also has been awarded a number of awards for his photography.

I think by reading the content on the PowerPoint and conducting independent research on Don McCullin it is really humbling to hear and see some of the situations he was involved in. by listening to a professional it has opened my eyes. I don’t think me as a journalist would be able to cope with this line of work. I am too emotional and as I have a disability am at a disadvantage in this area.

War and conflicts are so important and it is cruel that there are people out there like McCullin, to capture and tell the events to viewers. Viewers will never really understand the enormity of the situation but images can speak millions of words. I truly am taken back by McCullin’s work as there is so much depth and skill. Most of McCullin’s work is in Black and White this helps to increase the level of depth. Grey scale makes viewers look at the whole image and not just the main focal point. A lot of the images feature people looking directly towards the camera, this increase the human quality and increase the emotion and connects with the viewer.


Photo Journalist (Lynsey Addario)

Lynsey Addario was another photo journalist that caught my attention. The work i have seen of hers focuses on the photography genre of Photojournalism. Also her work mainly focuses on conflicts and human rights issues.

Photojournalism is a technique used to document events that are taking place. This style would commonly be seen in documentaries to give a visual aid to what the documentary is about. It is also seen within news broadcasting for instance: Lynsey captures Syrian refugees and these images could be used to back up what they are saying in the news.

This style of photography is very significant in today’s society as it is a record of some of the most tragic events in time. Most of the photographs are taken in black and white this is effective as it makes the viewers eye see the whole scene rather then be drawn to a specific point.

However, as you can see above lynsey doesn’t follow the direct style of the black and white images. She creates depth in each photo by keeping the colour intensity. She does take images in black and white but in the images above, I believe that these images wont have the same impact if it was stripped of the colour.

To gain a better understanding on her influences and style. I conducted a bit of personal research. underneath, is a book and it real is insightful. I borrowed it from the library and it really is emotive. I would advised others to take a read. There are images inside and explanations to what they are of.

lynsey addario